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Nmap 3.90 Released!
From: Fyodor (fyodorinsecure.org)
Date: Thu Sep 08 2005 - 05:56:41 CDT
Several anxious people have reminded me lately that it has been 7
months since the last formal Nmap release (3.81). While that is quite
a stretch, I have been working non-stop and made some fundamental
changes to Nmap that took a while to stabilize. I have also
integrated some work from the Google SoC students (and more is
coming). I am pleased to present the results in the form of Nmap
3.90. I think you'll find it worth the wait. A version number
increase of 0.09 may not sound like much, but ls indicates the true
extent of changes:
-rw------- 1 fyodor fyodor 7987200 Feb 7 05:41 nmap-3.81.tar
-rw------- 1 fyodor fyodor 10608640 Sep 8 03:16 nmap-3.90.tar
At a high level, changes include the ability to send and properly
route raw ethernet frames, ARP scanning (for faster and more reliable
local LAN host discovery), MAC address spoofing, enormous version
detection and OS detection updates, dramatic Windows performance and
stability improvements, 'l33t ASCII art, OS/hostname/device type
detection via service fingerprinting, dozens of bug fixes and much
more. Linux binary RPMs are now available for x86_64 (AMD
Athlon64/Opteron) and Windows users _must_ upgrade to WinPcap 3.1 from
We have now gone through and integrated all of your service detection
fingerprint submissions and are ready to handle more. So if Nmap
spits out a service detection fingerprint and you are certain what is
running, please submit it to the URL it gives you. OS detection
fingerprints aren't as important right now because we are considering
major changes to that subsystem.
Here are the details from the Changelog:
o Added the ability for Nmap to send and properly route raw ethernet
packets cointaining IP datagrams rather than always sending the
packets via raw sockets. This is particularly useful for Windows,
since Microsoft has disabled raw socket support in XP for no good
reason. Nmap tries to choose the best method at runtime based on
platform, though you can override it with the new --send_eth and
o Added ARP scanning (-PR). Nmap can now send raw ethernet ARP requests to
determine whether hosts on a LAN are up, rather than relying on
higher-level IP packets (which can only be sent after a successful
ARP request and reply anyway). This is much faster and more
reliable (not subject to IP-level firewalling) than IP-based probes.
The downside is that it only works when the target machine is on the
same LAN as the scanning machine. It is now used automatically for
any hosts that are detected to be on a local ethernet network,
unless --send_ip was specified. Example usage: nmap -sP -PR
o Added the --spoof_mac option, which asks Nmap to use the given MAC
address for all of the raw ethernet frames it sends. The MAC given
can take several formats. If it is simply the string "0", Nmap
chooses a completely random MAC for the session. If the given
string is an even number of hex digits (with the pairs optionally
separated by a colon), Nmap will use those as the MAC. If less than
12 hex digits are provided, Nmap fills in the remainder of the 6
bytes with random values. If the argument isn't a 0 or hex string,
Nmap looks through the nmap-mac-prefixes to find a vendor name
containing the given string (it is case insensitive). If a match is
found, Nmap uses the vendor's OUI (3-byte prefix) and fills out the
remaining 3 bytes randomly. Valid --spoof_mac argument examples are
"Apple", "0", "01:02:03:04:05:06", "deadbeefcafe", "0020F2", and
o Applied an enormous nmap-service-probes (version detection) update
from SoC student Doug Hoyte (doug(a)hcsw.org). Version 3.81 had
1064 match lines covering 195 service protocols. Now we have 2865
match lines covering 359 protocols! So the database size has nearly
tripled! This should make your -sV scans quicker and more
accurate. Thanks also go to the (literally) thousands of you who
submitted service fingerprints. Keep them coming!
o Applied a massive OS fingerprint update from Zhao Lei
(zhaolei(a)gmail.com). About 350 fingerprints were added, and many
more were updated. Notable additions include Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger),
OpenBSD 3.7, FreeBSD 5.4, Windows Server 2003 SP1, Sony AIBO (along
with a new "robotic pet" device type category), the latest Linux 2.6
kernels Cisco routers with IOS 12.4, a ton of VoIP devices, Tru64
UNIX 5.1B, new Fortinet firewalls, AIX 5.3, NetBSD 2.0, Nokia IPSO
3.8.X, and Solaris 10. Of course there are also tons of new
broadband routers, printers, WAPs and pretty much any other device
you can coax an ethernet cable (or wireless card) into!
o Added 'leet ASCII art to the confugrator! ARTIST NOTE: If you think
the ASCII art sucks, feel free to send me alternatives. Note that
only people compiling the UNIX source code get this. (ASCII artist
o Added OS, device type, and hostname detection using the service
detection framework. Many services print a hostname, which may be
different than DNS. The services often give more away as well. If
Nmap detects IIS, it reports an OS family of "Windows". If it sees
HP JetDirect telnetd, it reports a device type of "printer". Rather
than try to combine TCP/IP stack fingerprinting and service OS
fingerprinting, they are both printed. After all, they could
legitimately be different. An IP that gives a stack fingerprint
match of "Linksys WRT54G broadband router" and a service fingerprint
of Windows based on Kazaa running is likely a common NAT setup rather
than an Nmap mistake.
o Nmap on Windows now compiles/links with the new WinPcap 3.1
header/lib files. So please upgrade to 3.1 from
http://www.winpcap.org before installing this version of Nmap.
While older versions may still work, they aren't supported with Nmap.
o The official Nmap RPM files are now compiled statically for better
compatability with other systems. X86_64 (AMD Athlon64/Opteron)
binaries are now available in addition to the standard i386. NmapFE
RPMs are no longer distributed by Insecure.Org.
o Nmap distribution signing has changed. Release files are now signed
with a new Nmap Project GPG key (KeyID 6B9355D0). Fyodor has also
generated a new key for himself (KeyID 33599B5F). The Nmap key has
been signed by Fyodor's new key, which has been signed by Fyodor's
old key so that you know they are legit. The new keys are available
at http://www.insecure.org/nmap/data/nmap_gpgkeys.txt , as
docs/nmap_gpgkeys.txt in the Nmap source tarball, and on the public
keyserver network. Here are the fingerprints:
pub 1024D/33599B5F 2005-04-24
Key fingerprint = BB61 D057 C0D7 DCEF E730 996C 1AF6 EC50 3359 9B5F
uid Fyodor <fyodorinsecure.org>
sub 2048g/D3C2241C 2005-04-24
pub 1024D/6B9355D0 2005-04-24
Key fingerprint = 436D 66AB 9A79 8425 FDA0 E3F8 01AF 9F03 6B93 55D0
uid Nmap Project Signing Key (http://www.insecure.org/)
sub 2048g/A50A6A94 2005-04-24
o Fixed a crash problem related to non-portable varargs (vsnprintf)
usage. Reports of this crash came from Alan William Somers
(somers(a)its.caltech.edu) and Christophe (chris.branch(a)gmx.de).
This patch was prevalent on Linux boxes running an Opteron/Athlon64
CPU in 64-bit mode.
o Fixed crash when Nmap is compiled using gcc 4.X by adding the
--fno-strict-aliasing option when that compiler is detected. Thanks
to Greg Darke (starstuff(a)optusnet.com.au) for discovering that
this option fixes (hides) the problem and to Duilio J. Protti
(dprotti(a)flowgate.net) for writing the configure patch to detect
gcc 4 and add the option. A better fix is to identify and rewrite
lines that violate C99 alias rules, and we are looking into that.
o Added "rarity" feature to Nmap version detection. This causes
obscure probes to be skipped when they are unlikely to help. Each
probe now has a "rarity" value. Probes that detect dozens of
services such as GenericLines and GetRequest have rarity values of
1, while the WWWOFFLEctrlstat and mydoom probes have a rarity of 9.
When interrogating a port, Nmap always tries probes registered to
that port number. So even WWWOFFLEctrlstat will be tried against
port 8081 and mydoom will be tried against open ports between 3127
and 3198. If none of the registered ports find a match, Nmap tries
probes that have a rarity less than or equal to its current
intensity level. The intensity level defaults to 7 (so that most of
the probes are done). You can set the intensity level with the new
--version_intensity option. Alternatively, you can just use
--version_light or --version_all which set the intensity to 2 (only
try the most important probes and ones registered to the port
number) and 9 (try all probes), respectively. --version_light is
much faster than default version detection, but also a bit less
likely to find a match. This feature was designed and implemented
by Doug Hoyte (doug(a)hcsw.org).
o Added a "fallback" feature to the nmap-service-probes database.
This allows a probe to "inherit" match lines from other probes. It
is currently only used for the HTTPOptions, RTSPRequest, and
SSLSessionReq probes to inherit all of the match lines from
GetRequest. Some servers don't respond to the Nmap GetRequest (for
example because it doesn't include a Host: line) but they do respond
to some of those other 3 probes in ways that GetRequest match lines
are general enough to match. The fallback construct allows us to
benefit from these matches without repeating hundreds of signatures
in the file. This is another feature designed and implemented
by Doug Hoyte (doug(a)hcsw.org).
o Fixed crash with certain --excludefile or
--exclude arguments. Thanks to Kurt Grutzmacher
(grutz(a)jingojango.net) and pijn trein (ptrein(a)gmail.com) for
reporting the problem, and to Duilio J. Protti
(dprotti(a)flowgate.net) for debugging the issue and sending the
o Updated random scan (ip_is_reserved()) to reflect the latest IANA
assignments. This patch was sent in by Felix Groebert
o Included new Russian man page translation by
o Applied pach from Steve Martin (smartin(a)stillsecure.com) which
standardizes many OS names and corrects typos in nmap-os-fingerprints.
o Fixed a crash found during certain UDP version scans. The crash was
discovered and reported by Ron (iago(a)valhallalegends.com) and fixed
by Doug Hoyte (doug(a)hcsw.com).
o Added --iflist argument which prints a list of system interfaces and
routes detected by Nmap.
o Fixed a protocol scan (-sO) problem which led to the error message:
"Error compiling our pcap filter: syntax error". Thanks to Michel
Arboi (michel(a)arboi.fr.eu.org) for reporting the problem.
o Fixed an Nmap version detection crash on Windows which led to the
error message "Unexpected error in NSE_TYPE_READ callback. Error
code: 10053 (Unknown error)". Thanks to Srivatsan
(srivatsanp(a)adventnet.com) for reporting the problem.
o Fixed some misspellings in docs/nmap.xml reported by Tom Sellers
o Applied some changes from Gisle Vanem (giva(a)bgnett.no) to make
Nmap compile with Cygwin.
o XML "osmatch" element now has a "line" attribute giving the
reference fingerprint line number in nmap-os-fingerprints.
o Added a distcc probes and a bunch of smtp matches from Dirk Mueller
(mueller(a)kde.org) to nmap-service-probes. Also added AFS version
probe and matches from Lionel Cons (lionel.cons(a)cern.ch). And
even more probes and matches from Martin Macok
o Fixed a problem where Nmap compilation would use header files from
the libpcap included with Nmap even when it was linking to a system
libpcap. Thanks to Solar Designer (solar(a)openwall.com) and Okan
Demirmen (okan(a)demirmen.com) for reporting the problem.
o Added configure option --with-libpcap=included to tell Nmap to use
the version of libpcap it ships with rather than any that may already be
installed on the system. You can still use --with-libpcap=[dir] to
specify that a system libpcap be installed rather than the shipped
one. By default, Nmap looks at both and decides which one is likely
to work best. If you are having problems on Solaris, try
o Changed the --no-stylesheet option to --no_stylesheet to be
consistant with all of the other Nmap options. Though I'm starting to
like hyphens a bit better than underscores and may change all of the
options to use hyphens instad at some point.
o Added "Exclude" directive to nmap-service-probes grammar which
causes version detection to skip listed ports. This is helpful for
ports such as 9100. Some printers simply print any data sent to
that port, leading to pages of HTTP requests, SMB queries, X Windows
probes, etc. If you really want to scan all ports, specify
--allports. This patch came from Doug Hoyte (doug(a)hcsw.org).
o Added a stripped-down and heavily modified version of Dug Song's
libdnet networking library (v. 1.10). This helps with the new raw
ethernet features. My (extensive) changes are described in
o Removed WinIP library (and all Windows raw sockets code) since MS
has gone and broken raw sockets. Maybe packet receipt via raw
sockets will come back at some point. As part of this removal, the
Windows-specific --win_help, --win_list_interfaces, --win_norawsock,
--win_forcerawsock, --win_nopcap, --win_nt4route, --win_noiphlpapi,
and --win_trace options have been removed.
o Chagned the interesting ports array from a 65K-member array of
pointers into an STL list. This noticeable reduces memory usage in
some cases, and should also give a slight runtime performance
boost. This patch was written by Paul Tarjan (ptarjan(a)gmail.com).
o Removed the BSDFIX/BSDUFIX macros. The underlying bug in
FreeBSD/NetBSD is still there though. When an IP packet is sent
through a raw socket, these platforms require the total length and
fragmentation offset fields of an IP packet to be in host byte order
rather than network byte order, even though all the other fields
must be in NBO. I believe that OpenBSD fixed this a while back.
Other platforms, such as Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X, and Windows take
all of the fields in network byte order. While I removed the macro,
I still do the munging where required so that Nmap still works on
o Integrated many nmap-service-probes changes from Bo Jiang
o Added a bunch of RPC numbers from nmap-rpc maintainer Eilon Gishri
o Added some new RPC services to nmap-rpc thanks to a patch from
o Fixed a bug where Nmap would quit on Windows whenever it encountered
a raw scan of localhost (including the local ethernet interface
address), even when that was just one address out of a whole network
being scanned. Now Nmap just warns that it is skipping raw scans when
it encounters the local IP, but continues on to scan the rest of the
network. Raw scans do not currently work against local IP addresses
because Winpcap doesn't support reading/writing localhost interfaces
due to limitations of Windows.
o The OS fingerprint is now provided in XML output if debugging is
enabled (-d) or verbosity is at least 2 (-v -v). This patch was
sent by Okan Demirmen (okan(a)demirmen.com)
o Fixed the way tcp connect scan (-sT) respons to ICMP network
unreachable responses (patch by Richard Moore
o Update random host scan (-iR) to support the latest IANA-allocated
ranges, thanks to patch by Chad Loder (cloder(a)loder.us).
o Updated GNU shtool (a helper program used during 'make install' to
version 2.0.2, which fixes a predictable temporary filename
weakness discovered by Eric Raymond.
o Removed addport element from XML DTD, since it is no longer used
(sugested by Lionel Cons (lionel.cons(a)cern.ch)
o Added new --privileged command-line option and NMAP_PRIVILEGED
environmental variable. Either of these tell Nmap to assume that
the user has full privileges to execute raw packet scans, OS
detection and the like. This can be useful when Linux kernel
capabilities or other systems are used that allow non-root users to
perform raw packet or ethernet frame manipulation. Without this
flag or variable set, Nmap bails on UNIX if geteuid() is
o Changed the RPM spec file so that if you define "static" to 1 (by
passing --define "static 1" to rpmbuild), static binaries are built.
o Fixed Nmap compilation on Solaris x86 thanks to a patch from Simon
o ultra_scan() now sets pseudo-random ACK values (rather than 0) for
any TCP scans in which the initial probe packet has the ACK flag set.
This would be the ACK, Xmas, Maimon, and Window scans.
o Updated the Nmap version number, description, and similar fields
that MS Visual Studio places in the binary. This was done by editing
mswin32/nmap.rc as suggested by Chris Paget (chrispngssoftware.com)
o Fixed Nmap compilation on DragonFly BSD (and perhaps some other
systems) by applying a short patch by Joerg Sonnenberger which omits
the declaration of errno if it is a #define.
o Fixed an integer overflow that prevented Nmap from scanning
2,147,483,648 hosts in one expression (e.g. 0.0.0.0/1). Problem
noted by Justin Cranford (jcranford(a)n-able.com). While /1 scans
are now possible, don't expect them to finish during your bathroom
break. No matter how constipated you are.
o Increased the buffer size allocated for fingerprints to prevent Nmap
from running out and quitting (error message: "Assertion
`servicefpalloc - servicefplen > 8' failed". Thanks to Mike Hatz
(mhatz(a)blackcat.com) for the report. [ Actually this was done in a
previous version, but I forgot which one ]
o Changed from CVS to Subversion source control system (which
rocks!). Neither repository is public (I'm paranoid because both CVS
and SVN have had remotely exploitable security holes), so the main
change users will see is that "Id" tags in file headers use the SVN
format for version numbering and such.
As always, you can download Nmap from
http://www.insecure.org/nmap/nmap_download.html . The paranoid
(smart) list members will check the cryptographic hashes and GPG
signatures available from
Enjoy! And please let me know if you encounter any problems.
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